What is THUMS?

Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) is a human body finite element model jointly developed by Toyota Motor Corporation and Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. THUMS is capable of simulating human body injuries such as bone fracture, brain and internal organs damage in vehicle collisions. Compared to the physical crash dummies commonly used in vehicle collision tests, THUMS is able to analyze collision-related injuries in more detail because it precisely represents the shapes and durability of human bodies.
THUMS has continually evolved to add a range of models with different genders, ages and physiques that include skeletal structures, brains, internal organs and muscles.

Model Structure
Model Structure
Variations in Age and Physique (Version 4)
Variations in Age and Physique (Version 4)
Active Muscle (Versions 5, 6 & 7)
Active Muscle
(Versions 5, 6 & 7)
Evolution of THUMS
Reclined Posture (Version 7)
*Spine alignment was based on IRCOBI 2022 paper written by Mazda Motor Corporation.
Evolution of THUMS
Evolution of THUMS


Version 7 Series

Body Type Version Posture
AF05 V7 Occupant
AM50 V7 Occupant
AM95 V7 Occupant

Version 7 Series (Reclined Occupant)

Body Type Version Seat Back Angle
AF05 V7 25deg.
V7 35deg.
V7 45deg.
AM50 V7 25deg.
V7 35deg.
V7 45deg.
AM95 V7 25deg.
V7 35deg.
V7 45deg.

Version 6 Series

Body Type Version Posture
AF05 V6.1 Occupant
AM50 V6.1 Occupant
AM95 V6.1 Occupant

Version 5 Series

Body Type Version Posture
AF05 V5.03 Occupant
AM50 V5.03 Occupant
AM95 V5.03 Occupant

Version 4 Series

Body Type Version Posture
3YO V4 Occupant
V4 Pedestrian
6YO V4 Occupant
V4 Pedestrian
10YO V4 Occupant
V4 Pedestrian
AF05 V4.1 Occupant
V4.02 Pedestrian
AM50 V4.1 Occupant
V4.02 Pedestrian
AM95 V4.1 Occupant
V4.02 Pedestrian

Version 4 Series for Euro NCAP TB024 V4.0

Body Type Version Posture
6YO V4 Pedestrian
AF05 V4.02 Pedestrian
AM50 V4.02 Pedestrian
AM95 V4.02 Pedestrian


Model Type Body Type Base Version
Elderly (70YO) AF50 V4.02
AM50 V4.1
Obese BMI35 V4.0
Pregnant AF05 V1.0
Whiplash AF50 V4.0
AM50 V4.0


THUMS was validated against loading tests both to body components and whole body. A total of 38 tests with postmortem human subjects (PMHS) were cited from the literature. Further information is available in documentation (manual) included in THUMS model data.

Components (Version 6.1)
Whole Body (Version 6.1)


THUMS can be used for research and development of safety technologies such as seatbelt, airbag and energy absorbing structure.


    Model Version 7
    Occupant AM50
    Version 6.1
    Occupant AM50
    Version 5.03
    Occupant AM50
    Version 4.1
    Occupant AM50
    Version 4 for Euro NCAP
    TB024 Pedestrian AM50
    Element 2,169,783 1,925,520 285,792 1,921,764 1,975,471
      Solid 1,696,821 1,466,148 146,280 1,466,112 1,527,480
    Shell 453,008 450,058 122,052 449,934 442,273
    Seatbelt 7,152 7,152 4,422 5,398 5,398
    Beam 12,533 1,970 12,798 204 204
    Others 269 192 240 116 116
    Node 840,825 766,459 185,897 762,997 772,172
    Part 2,455 2,213 416 1,293 1,285
    Time Step* [s] 2.3E-7 4.0E-7 5.4E-7 4.0E-7 4.0E-7
    Data Size [MB](approx.) 230 195 71 192 197

    Default times step size for mass scaled solutions.